Candida Vulvovaginitis

What is Candida Vulvovaginitis?

Vulvovaginitis is a kind of infection or inflammation that is caused in the vagina or the vulva of a female. It is a common form of infection and can affect the girls and woman in all the age groups. Vaginitis or vulvitis are also some of the other names that have been given to this disease. The main triggers behind the cause of the infection are through yeasts, viruses, bacteria, allergens, any infection transmitted through sexual intercourse, irritation through chemicals and other environmental factors.

Major Symptoms

The type of this disease mainly depends on how the disease is caused, and it may vary from person to person. The major symptoms of candida vulvovaginitis include:

  • Genital itching and irritation.

  • White discharge from the vagina

  • Strong and foul odour.

  • Feeling a burning sensation in the vagina while urinating and facing discomfort.

  • Around the perineal and labia areas, inflammation has also been observed.


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Causes of Candida Vulvovaginitis:

  • Some bacteria can proliferate causing vulvovaginitis, and after the infection is caused by the bacteria a yellow-greyish discharge that smells like fish is caused from the vagina. The most vital point of this kind of infection is that many of the women do not always show any of the above symptoms, this is according to the Illinois Department of Public Health.

  • Human papillomavirus that is HPV and herpes simplex are some of the viruses that causes vulvovaginitis.

  • Trichomonas vaginitis also causes vulvovaginitis that is caused through the infection that is transmitted sexually. It causes discomfort, heavy discharge and itching in the genital area. The discharge is of various colors like grey, green or yellow. It gives a very strong odour. Such infections among children can be the result of abuse, but some are also caused without any kind of sexual contact.

  • The yeast Candida albicans is the most common micro-organism that causes the infection and results in genital itching. The vaginal discharge in this kind of infection is just like the cottage cheese that is thick and smelly. Sometimes the use of antibiotics are prescribed to relieve chest infections, but the excessive use of antibiotics may also lead to overgrowths of Candida yeast infection aswell. A 2015 study published in ‘DivePress’ revealed that the number of positive cultures of Candida Vulvovaginitis increased, as the number of days that antibiotics were given (see table 1 below). A 30 day course of antibiotics showed a 10% increase of Candida Vulvovaginitis cultures. So, although antibiotics do have their benefits, long term use can also increase the chances of Vulvovaginitis sharply.

Candida Vulvovaginitis increase with antibiotic use


Case Study:

A single female who is aged 24, Tanya Walters complained of slight dysuria and yellow, smelly vaginal discharge for almost one week. According to her she did not have any fever, itching, and pelvic pains. She had sexual relationship with two different partners within 6 months and did not use condoms, and had only taken contraceptive pills for preventing pregnancy.

Her blood pressure was 112/78, pulse rate was 72, and temperature was 37.3 degrees. She had no flank pain on percussion, her external genitalia was normal but she had excoriations near her introitus without any lesions. Without any cervical mucopus she used to have yellowish, frothy and malodorous discharge, though it easily induced bleeding from the cervical.

So from the above study we see that the women should be very much careful if she is having sexual contact with more than one person, and thus should take the important protections that are necessary to prevent any kind of infection. Signs of a yellowish, frothy and malodorous discharge is highly likely to be a case of Candida vulvovaginitis, so one much consult their doctor immediately.

There are also conditions like the non-specific vulvovaginitis in which the cause of the infection is not really known fully. Such gynaecological problems are mainly observed in the girls who have not entered the stage of puberty, but are now caused due to the low level of estrogen. The infections reduce after the girl enters the puberty stage as the acidity of the vagina is increased.

So to prevent the above conditions, girls who haven’t entered the stage of puberty should maintain proper diet, so that such complications can be eliminated during the earlier stages before puberty. Keeping a low sugar and yeast diet should be on the agenda if one wants to prevent yeast infections in the future.


Diagnosis and Treatment

The doctor will do some pelvic examinations by first collecting a sample of a females discharge for the purpose of microscopic testing and evaluation. They will also discuss the symptoms and causes with you. If there is no sign of discharge or irritation, then there may be a need to perform biopsy by collecting some portions of the tissue from the vulva region. All the examinations will help to identify the micro-organism much efficiently and quickly. The doctors mainly prescribe antifungal and antibacterial creams that can be applied over the skin, sometimes antifungal pills are given.


Repeat Episode of Candida Vulvovaginitis – 2004 – by Barbara D. Reed, Philip Zazove, Carl L. Pierson, Daniel W. Gorenflo, and Julie Horrocks. (Journal of Women’s Health.)

Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis – 2000 – by ERIKA N. RINGDAHL, M.D., University of Missouri–Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri
Diagnosis of Candida Vulvovaginitis – 2005 – by Carthage J. Carroll, Rosalinde Hurley andValerie C. Stanley (BJOG)

Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis – 2015 – by Emeribe AU, Nasir IA, Onyia J, Ifunanya AL (DovePress)


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