Candida Rugosa

What is Candida Rugosa?

Candida Rugosa is a fungus that is rarely found in humans. Hence it is not common to hear about it even from doctors who generally prescribe general medications. Though numerous studies and research have been performed on the fungi, little only has been found on it. The fungi were found only in 1985 when it was reported in two different institutions in the United States by catheter-related fungemia. Candida Rugosa is part of the 154 different species of Candida, they are wrinkled and spherical-shaped, usually cream to white in color. Candida Rugosa is mainly found in people from the region of Latin American. (see table below)

Candida Rugosa
Candida Rugosa

The table above shows that although the Candida species are highest in patients from Europe, the number of Candida Rugosa cases are highest in Latin America. However, only 2.7% of the total samples from Latin America were identified as Candida Rugosa, so the overall number of these cases are very rare.

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What is Known About it?

There was a recent study done on a 31-year-old female patient suffering from end-stage renal disease who had symptoms of: severe vomiting, cloudy dialysate abdominal pain, nausea for 3 days, and had been undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) therapy for close to 2 years. The patient did not have history of peritonitis. The exit site and tunnel of the CAPD catheter were found to be normal. The patient was then started on antibiotics of amikacin and cefazolin intraperitoneally. But, her clinical status did not improve. Based on the yeast growth present on her peritoneal fluid culture, it was identified as Candida Rugosa.  The results showed that CAPD-related peritonitis does not help in curing fungal peritonitis. Hence antibiotic treatment must be considered. Patients suffering from Candida Rugosa should undergo antifungal susceptibility tests. This study also found that Candida Rugosa was more frequent in patients with burn wounds, or in patient who use catheters or intravenous devices. Moreover, it was also important to note that Candida Rugosa did show reduction after antifungal medication, so it shows the importance of starting medication early.


Candida Rugosa Under Microscope
Candida Rugosa Under Microscope (Image by

Another study was conducted on the outbreak of Candida rugosa after amphotericin B therapy, where it was evaluated that Candida rugosa Candidemia cases which occurred in six hospitalized patients in São Paulo, Brazil. The patients had undergone surgery, dialysis, and central venous catheterization. The results showed that the invasive medical procedures are sometimes the cause of the Candida rugosa. It can have the ability to affect the immune competent hosts causing serious systemic infection.


Both the above two studies, clearly highlight the fact that Candida Rugosa can sometimes occur due to invasive medical procedures. Moreover, the symptoms of this infection are quite similar to Candida albican infections like: vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain. However, being a very rare disease makes it unheard of in many parts of the world. Even seasoned doctors might not have seen these kinds of cases in their entire career. Patients with these kinds of signs should be provided with antifungal treatment and they should undergo antifungal susceptibility tests to confirm the disease.


Testing for Candida Overgrowth

Candida yeast infection can affect practically any part of the body, and this is because of the abundance of the causative agent of this infection, Candida albicans, and several other species from this genus, on and inside the human body. This infection is more a commonplace in people with compromised immune functions because of its nature of being an opportunistic pathogen, which makes the yeast infection test important for their prompt detection. Thus, the yeast remains harmless as long as the immune capacity of its host, along with the friendly bacterial flora of the human body keeps them under check. However, they are likely to quickly turn rogue and cause an infection whenever there is any major disruptions in the normal flora of the body, weakening of the host immune functions, or abundance of suitable growth triggers such as sugar or an alkaline pH level.
It is very important that you perform the right tests for finding the Candida overgrowth. There are different kinds of tests like blood test, stool test, and urine test. It is not ideal to perform a single test and confirm, but it would be best to perform at least 2 tests just to ensure that you have a Candida Rugosa problem.


Blood Test

The blood tests are performed to confirm the presence of Candidemia in the body. The levels of the Candida antibodies known as IgG, IgA, and IgM are checked in the body. The blood tests can be performed in labs or clinics. You will want to ensure that the clinic or hospital you perform the tests are reliable and provide good accuracy, hence you were advised to go in for all the tests.


Stool Testing

The stool test is also suggested for confirming the presence of Candida Rugosa in the body. Unlike other tests, the stool test is the most accurate and can help you actually find out whether or not the issue is there. The presence of the yeast in your lower intestine and colon are checked.


Urine Organix Dysbiosis test

The urine organix dysbiosis test is performed to find out for waste products of the Candida yeast present in the body. The Candida yeast which is present in the body known as D-arabinitol is checked for in the body. The levels of the Candida which are present in your small intestines and upper gut are mainly looked at.


How do you treat Candida?

Three things need to be done to successfully treat Candida. You will need to do your best to avoid sugary foods to stop the yeast overgrowth. You will need to build the friendly bacteria present in the body by taking probiotics and unsweetened natural yogurt. The ability to heal your gut is also needed which can help your Candida to no longer enter your body. Some food habits should be checked.
You will want to know that sugar in any form is bad for yeast. When your body is having Candida overgrowth, you will want to decrease it. Items which are rich in sugar have to be avoided like chocolates, candy, desserts, and alcohol. Food and drinks like: very sweet fruits, bread, potatoes, alcohol and surgery drinks should be avoided, as it helps the Candida to further grow.
Avoid all kinds of fermented foods. These foods feed the good bacteria, which is something you will not want to be doing. You can also consider using the anti-fungal medication: Voriconazole. Voriconazole has shown good susceptibility to fighting off cases of Candida rugosa with the least resistance. Also consider taking probiotics everyday which can help in decreasing the Candida levels and restores good bacteria.

When you have been infected with Candida Rugosa, then it is highly recommended that you visit a reputed doctor for treatment.


Candida rugosa, Resistance to Azoles – Journal of Clinical Microbiology – 2006 – By M. A. Pfaller, D. J. Diekema, L. Colombo, C. Kibbler

Peritonitis Due to Candida rugosa – Peritoneal Dialysis International – 2010 – By I. Kocyigit, A. Unal, M.H. Sipahioglu, B. Tokgoz, O. Oymak & C. Utas

A new fungal pathogen emerging – Journal of Medical Microbiology – 2011 – By Richard C. Barton

Outbreak of Candida rugosa Candidemia – Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease – 2003 – By Arnaldo Lopes Colomboa, Analy S. Azevedo Melo

Structure of Candida rugosa Lipase – Journal of Biological Chemistry – 1993 – By Pawel Grochulski, Yunge Lis, Joseph D. Schrag, Frangois Bouthillie


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